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Thursday, August 16, 2012

Les Fine Herbes; the Most Important Herb Group in French Cuisine. Les Fine Herbes on French Menus.

Behind the French Menu
Bryan Newman
Last updated June 2017 
A book on herbs in French and English. 

Les Fine Herbes.

Originally a blend of four herbs, the fine herb group today, with thyme added along the way, is in all French kitchens as a blend of five herbs:
Cerfeuil, Chervil; Ciboulette, Chives; Estragon, Tarragon;
 Persil, Parsley; Thym, Thyme.

The first question usually asked is can these herbs be used dry?   If you ask a French chef he or she will begin by saying use only use fresh herbs.  French chefs only use fresh herbs when they are available and in mainland France, they are available all year round.  Elsewhere that is not always the case.

I have asked a number of French chefs about the correct proportions, and I have received, more or less, the same answer from all. For dishes that require a delicate touch keep the quantities of chives and tarragon low, to highlight the herbs use more chives, thyme, and parsley, but tarragon must always be used with caution.  N.B. French chefs may use another herb when one of the originals is not available.
I am not a professional cook, nor even an adept amateur cook, so this post is for those, like myself, who want to know what they are tasting. For those who do cook, there are excellent recipes using the " les fine herbes" on the web and in many cookbooks.  Any dish you order as a diner or make as a cook where les fine herbes are used there should have a distinctive, but gentle, herb taste where the same dish without the herbs would be bland. To test the effectiveness of these herbs very lightly sprinkle the herb group on one part of a dish.  two simply fried eggs will do for this test, one egg with and one without, then enjoy the difference.  This was shown to me by an excellent chef who still had time to listen to my questions. I have never forgotten that simple test.
 Les Fine Herbes
(Catalan – cerfull), (Dutch – kervel),  ( German – kerbel.  Kerbel, Gartenkerbel, Französische Petersilie ), (Italian – cerfoglio), (Spanish – perifollo).
Photograph courtesy of Edsel L
(Catalan - all junciforme), (Dutch -  bieslook), (German – schnittlauch), (Italian  - erba cipollina, aglio ungherese), (Spanish – cebollino).
Photograph courtesy of isaccgriberg

(Catalan - estragó), (Dutch - dragon), (German – französischer estragon), (Italian – estragone Française, dragoncello), (Spanish - estragón).       
Photograph courtesy of Jasmine&Roses
Persil, Persil Frisé  - Curley Parsley
(Catalan - julivert comú),(Dutch - peterselie ), (German - Italienische petersilie, glatte petersilie  ), (Italian – prezzemolo, prezzemolo romano, petrosemolo),  (Spanish - perejil, perejil común).
Photograph courtesy of gr8kayte
Most chefs say that flat parsley has a stronger taste, however,  the difference is virtually undetectable. What is certain, that for decoration, but not for les fine herbes, curly parsley is preferred. (There is a third member of the parsley family and that is root parsley but it is not part of les fine herbes).

(Catalan - julivert arrissat, julivert crespo ), (Dutch - krulpeterselie ),  (German – petersilie, petersil), (Italian – prezzemolo),  (Spanish - perejil, perejil común).
Photograph courtesy of  TonalLuminsoity
(Catalan - farigola), (Dutch – tijm), (German – tymian), (Italian – timo),  (Spanish – tomillo).
Photograph courtesy of richard_north

Wild thyme, serpolet in French, may be used in the South of France.
When a chef begins to plant his or her herb garden it is the fine herbs that he or she will start with, and they will always take pride of place. 

Les Fine Herbes on French menus:

Assiette de 12 Escargots Farcis Ail et Fines HerbesA plate of 12 snails stuffed with garlic and the fine herbs. When garlic is used in a dish that also has the fine herbs group for flavor the chef must be very careful as the two flavors may compete. The garlic must be used with care for a balanced flavor.

Mussels with white wine and fine herbs.
Photograph courtesy of .snow.
Ballottine de Saumon Poché, Mayonnaise aux Fines Herbes -  A roll of poached salmon served with a fresh mayonnaise flavored with the fine herb group.

Carré d'Agneau Coupé en Côtelettes à l'Ail et Fines Herbes -  A rack of lamb divided into chops and flavored with garlic and the fine herbs.  As with the dish of snails above the garlic in this dish will be a very light touch.
Entrecôte Grillée aux Fines Herbes An entrecote, a rib-eye steak, flavored with the fine herbs. 

A grilled entrecote served with a fine herbs flavored butter.
A compound butter, thickened with herbs and bone marrow, is placed on the steak just before serving. Like a  Beurre Maitre D’Hotel or Beurre Bercy, each with their own flavors, the butter will slowly melt and flavor the steak.
Photograph courtesy of 46317
Salade Verte aux Fines Herbes et Pignons de Pin Grillés, Vinaigrette de Betterave Rouge -  A green salad with fine herbs and grilled pine nuts, served with a red beetroot vinaigrette dressing.
Saumon Fumé au Fromage Blanc et Fines Herbes – Smoked salmon served with fresh white cheese flavored with the fine herbs.
On a road trip in France en-route to a long-awaited dinner at a famous temple of French cuisine,  we stopped at  1pm at road-side restaurant for a light lunch; while waiting we sat under large umbrellas and enjoyed the noise of the cars, scenery and our friendship.
We knew that if we ate too much we would not be able to appreciate the unique dishes promised that evening. The first of our group to choose, chose an omelet aux fine herbes, an omelet prepared with the fine herbs group.  The serveur, the server, who took our order, went back to the kitchen and returned one minute later with an empty plate, and  then from a previously unnoticed herb garden picked a mixture of parsley, basil, chives, thyme and tarragon, to which I noticed  she added savory. The herbs she brought back to the chef in the kitchen and, of course the omelet, was delicious as were everyone else's choices;  we ended our light lunch only at 15:30 and,  unfortunately that still left us a two-hour drive.

With travel time pressure, it is virtually impossible to schedule a relaxed sumptuous dinner after a two-hundred-plus mile drive; you lose more than you gain.  I recommend planning culinary trips for the day or evening  after a long road trip..  

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Bryan G. Newman
Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010,2013, 2017.
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