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Thursday, June 21, 2012

French National Holidays, their Jours Fériés, and More. A Short Guide.

from
Behind the French Menu.
by
Bryan Newman
   
Jour de l'An, New Year’s Celebrations.
     
France has 11 Jours Fériés, National Holidays
  
   In addition to the National Holidays,there are many other local celebrations that include Halloween, Carnival, Valentine’s Day etc.. Visitors are welcome at all the French Celebrations, but you need to know the French holidays when planning your trip! Check which museums and places of entertainment are open. The UK and the USA have French Government Tourist Offices that you visit or may contact for the price of a local call. Use the internet and check with the hotel if you have reserved in advance.Checking ahead will save great deal of  otherwise wasted miles. N.B. France has a Government Tourist Information Office in practically every town and village with tourist interest. They will give you maps of wine routes and cheese roads etc. They will also give information on fetes, concerts, and other celebrations in the towns and villages around. These offices also have the dates and addresses for farmers' markets round about. Nevertheless, many of the smaller tourist information offices close for a one and a half-hour lunch break. Check ahead!
        
    If one of the Jours Fériés falls on a weekday, then all French employees, government and private, are paid to take the day off.  In addition to those paid Jours Fériés every French employee has a legal minimum of another five weeks of paid vacation per year! That’s an average of at least 40 paid vacation days every year; that is the law in France.
       
    For the visitor to France looking to visit a particular museum, or any site of interest, including restaurants, on National and other Holidays, it is always advisable to check on the internet or even call ahead. Limitations include changes in visiting hours or on the up-side celebrations and special events. In any case during the year, Monday is the most popular closing day for museums throughout the year, but always check. 
 
   The work week in France is 35 hours and overtime pay is very high; take that into account. Many smaller restaurants are open only five days a week, in business centers that will usually be Saturday and Sunday, but outside business centers smaller restaurants are often closed Monday and Tuesday.  Check! Apart from National Holidays many tourist sites are closed for a month or more in the winter.  Check ahead!   

The 11 French National Holidays arThe night of the 31st of December and the first day of January:
   
Expect fireworks, parties, special menus, and champagne on many menus on New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day.  Many museums are closed.

Jour de l'An or Le Nouvel An - New Year’s Eve and New Year’s Day. 
  
Lundi de Pâques
Easter Monday:
  
   Today Easter Monday is a secularized holiday that, however, the day still follows the dates of the Protestant and Catholic traditions.  Watch out for special menus, cakes and of course Easter eggs.

Fête du Travail or Fête du Premier Mai, May 1 –  
Labor Day:   
            
   The 1st of May in France closes more public places than any other country in Europe except Italy. The only National Tourist site that I know that remains open in Paris on May 1 is the Eifel Tower!  Nevertheless, most private museums are open and so are churches and the boats on the Seine.
                                   
Victoire, Fête de la Victoire 1945 or Fête du Huitième, 8 May -
The celebration of the end of WWII:
  
   There are memorial assemblies at war cemeteries and at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at the Arc de Triomphe.  For those too young to remember that war, and those who have no family members who were hurt or killed in any war this is, for many, just another paid holiday.
  
Arc de Triomphe
   
Ascension, L'Ascension or Fête de la Ascension
Ascension Day:      
     
    A secularized Christian Holiday.  The Ascension Day holiday is held 40 days after Easter, 39 days after Easter Sunday. The dates change every year following Protestant and Catholic tradition.  Some restaurants may have special menus.
     
Pentecôte or Lundi de Pentecôte
Whit Monday:
                
    Pentecost is another secularized Christian holiday.  The holiday is held 49 days after Easter Monday. In France in 2005 this holiday became a source of discord; then the French Government suggested making the holiday a day where government employees worked but donated their pay to the sick and elderly. Somehow that didn’t work out! 
          
    Pentecost is the Greek name for the Jewish holiday of Shavuot that commemorates the giving of the law on Mount Sinai. This holiday was adopted by the early Christians to mark the descent of the Holy Spirit onto the Twelve Disciples.
    
Fête Nationale - Le Quatorze Juillet -
Bastille Day, July 14:    

    Bastille Day represents the beginning of the French revolution. It is called "Le Quatorze Juillet" in French and is also looked forward to, by many, today, as the beginning of four weeks of uninterrupted summer vacation.  This holiday celebrates the storming of the Bastille – The Parisian prison on the 14 of July 1789. Hence Le Quatorze Juillet, Bastille Day.  The 14th of July 1789 is considered, by most, as the starting date for the French revolution. It matters little that, at the time, the Bastille was stormed it held only eight prisoners all of whom were aristocrats and included one lunatic.  The anniversary of Bastille day on the 14th of July may be called Bastille Day in English but in France use French name “Le Quatorze Juillet”. Le Quatorze Juillet is France’s Fête Nationale, its National Day.
   
   For the tourist, from outside France, the four to six weeks following the 14th of July is one of the best times to find a parking place in the cities. Outside of the cities, however, those 4 to 6 weeks is the worst time to look for a vacation rental. On the 14th of July, the French leave the cities in droves for their summer holidays, but they will either have bought or rented a vacation home or made reservations for local hotels long before then.  
  

14th July, Bastille Day. Le Quatorze Juillet.
  
    Of the Bastille Prison itself, there is no a trace; however, the site remains one of Paris’s most famous squares, La Place de la Bastille. Today that square is, apart from its history, more importantly, home to Paris’s second and largest, and newest opera house, the Opéra Bastille; built in 1989 it holds 2,700 people in one hall.

    Despite the importance of Le Quatorze Juillet, the 14th of July, the French revolution did not, in fact, begin on that date. The French revolution began at the Chateau of Versailles, on June 20th, 1789. Still tradition is tradition. Similarities may be Seen in the USA where the Congress voted for independence on the 2nd of July; however, the 4th of July, the date the final Declaration was read out is the USA Independence Day.
   
Assomption or Fete de l'Assomption - 
Assumption Day, 15th of August:
    
    Assumption Day is another secularized Christian holiday.  For the visitor, most restaurants and places of tourist interest keep their regular schedules.  The Christian tradition itself commemorates the acceptance of Mary, the Mother of Jesus Christ, into Heaven. 
  
Toussaint
All Saints Day, or All Hallows, November 1:  
       
    All Saints Day was created by the French Pope Urban I (1261-64) as a day of celebration for all those Saints who may have been unintentionally ignored during the rest of the year. it is another secularized Christian Holyday. For many French citizens this is the day after Halloween which itself is a new and imported holiday. For more about France and Halloween see further down this post.
  

Toussaint - All Saints Day,
     
Armistice, Jour d'Armistice
Armistice Day 1918; November 11.  
   
   The date celebrates the end of WWI,  Tourist attractions and restaurants mostly operate with their regular schedules.  
        
Fête de Noël or Fête Noël
Christmas day; December 25. 
      
   In the regions of Alsace and Lorraine the 26 of December are also National Holidays; elsewhere, in France, the 26th of December is a regular workday.
         
   In addition to having 11 national holidays, many towns and villages have their own local holidays.  Local celebrations are usually held over a weekend, so these are unpaid holidays.  These local celebrations may originally have had historical or religious backgrounds, but now these festivals are mostly celebrating local produce, vegetables, fish, herbs, wines, cheeses, sausages and more; everyone has a good time while invigorating the local economy.  Check for events 10 km (6 miles) to 20 km (13 miles)  around the area or areas you will be visiting; with luck you may have arrived in time for the local black pudding festival, the tasting of a young new wine or the first day of the asparagus season.
       
The following are not National Holydays, but you should still expect parties and special restaurant menus:
   
Epiphany or La Fête des Rois - 
Epiphany or the feast of the three kings. The first Sunday after January 1:

.   Epiphany for most is an unofficial secularized holiday, and for restaurants it is another chance to create special menus. In the north of France mainly in private homes, a traditional cake, the Galette des Rois, the King’s pancake or wafer; will be divided amongst the guests and inside one portion will be a small figurine or some other surprise.  In Provence there is a similar tradition, they have their own cake called the Gâteau des Rois, the King’s Cake.  The recipes of these cakes are supposed to be traditional, but they seem to vary a great deal. These cakes may be on many restaurant menus from Christmas and on through January.
   
 Carnaval – 
Carnival and Mardi Gras. 

    The dates of most French Carnival celebrations are no longer tied to the original Christian dates, but they are still very important celebrations for tourists and locals. Some celebrations are held over a two-day weekend and the most famous, the Nice Carnaval is held over a two-week period in February,
  

The Nice Carnaval.
   
The Nice “Carnaval” English language website:
  
http://www.nicecarnaval.com/en/index.php

Fêtés St-Valentin or the Fête des Amoureux - 
Valentines Day.14 February:
  
    Not a traditional a French holiday at all, and like Halloween a relatively recent import; but, the Fêtés St-Valentin is now well accepted. Cards, gifts, flowers, chocolates, cakes shaped like hearts and special menus in many restaurants.
  
 
Valentines Day
              
Fête des Mères or Fête des Mamans – 
Mother’s day; the last Sunday in May.
 
Fêtes de Pères or Fêtes de Papas – 
Father’s day; the third Sunday in June.
      
Solstice d'Été   - 
The summer solstice, 21st June except on leap years.  
  
   Druid celebrations in Brittany and some Christian-based celebrations in Provence.

Halloween October 31.
  
    Halloween was never an original French Holiday, despite that, today Halloween is enjoyed, and celebrated in France, with thanks to the USA. Halloween, however, is a work day and school day; so celebrations will be in the evening and then restaurants will have special menus.       


Halloween; a Successful American Import.
 
Bryan G. Newman
    
Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010, 2012, 2016.
   
For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman
at
behindthefrenchmenu@gmail.com