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Saturday, October 20, 2018

Perdrix -The Partridge. Partridges in French Cuisine.

Behind the French Menu
Bryan G. Newman
The red-legged partridge.

When partridge is on the menu, do not simply pass it by.

Partridge is a tasty game bird though nearly all partridges, like pheasants and quail on French menus, are farm raised.  Partridges have a stronger taste than chicken, and menus include traditional and newly created recipes.  Unfortunately, even farm-raised partridges are rarely seen in markets or supermarkets so when partridge is on a French menu do not pass it by.  Enjoy the opportunity

Dinner for two.
Partridges with chanterelle mushrooms and white wine
Photograph courtesy of Ôdélices
Partridges are small, and as a main course, one bird is just about enough for a single diner.  A whole cooked partridge will rarely weigh more than 225 grams (8 ounces), and only half of that is meat.  When partridge breast is on a French menu, it will usually be an entrée, the French starter.
Perdreau - A young partridge.

Perdreau de Chasse - A young wild partridge.  The hunting of wild partridges in France is strictly controlled, and many departments entirely ban their hunting.

19th-century drawing of a pair of partridges and chicks.
Perdreau d'Élevage - A young farm-raised partridge

Pedrix - An adult partridge.

Perdrix Grise - The English or Grey Partridge.

Perdrix Rouge - The red-legged partridge also called the French partridge, is the slightly larger than the grey partridge.
Partridge on French Menus:
Bouillon de Perdrix aux Châtaignes – A partridge bouillon flavored with chestnuts.  (A bouillon is a light soup or broth made with the strained liquids from boiled vegetables, meat, poultry, fish or seafood). 
Salmis de Perdrix Rouge
aux Châtaignes et Aux Olives Taggiasche
Salmis of red-legged partridge with chestnuts and Taggiasche olives,
Cassoulet de Carcassonne - Cassoulets are the famous, substantial, winter stews that mostly originates in the southern French historical province of Languedoc.  Since 1-1-2016 Languedoc is part of the new super-region of Occitanie.  The Carcassonne Cassoulet recipes include the red partridge in addition to pork loin, pork belly, bacon, pork rinds, tomatoes and carrots and, of course, France ’s ubiquitous white beans.  Carcassonne is a historical French fortified hilltop city in the south of France.  It is set on the Canal du Midi in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.  It is just 80 km (50 miles) from the Mediterranean by car, but you can also rent a self-drive cabin cruiser to travel along the canals and rivers to Bordeaux on the Atlantic Ocean or to Sete on the Mediterranean Sea.  (The rental includes instruction on how to navigate and open and close locks).

A Cassoulet de Carcassonne
Filet de Perdrix en Robe de Lard Farcie de Fromage de Chèvre de Saint-Loup, Servi avec une Sauce Miel et Thym Partridge breast wrapped in bacon and stuffed with the Saint-Loup goat’s cheese from the region of Poitou Charentes (now part of Nouvelle Aquitaine) and served with a honey and thyme sauce.
Perdrix Rouge, Crème de Lard Fumé, Chanterelles en Tube et Persil Italien – The red partridge served with a cream of smoked bacon sauce prepared with wild trumpet chanterelle mushrooms and flat parsley. (Flat parsley is also called Italian parsley).  
Salade de Perdrix et Foie Gras, Carpaccio de Figues et Pommes Partridge salad served with very lightly fried fattened duck’s liver accompanied by a Carpaccio of figs and apples. (The favorite apple for a dish like this is the Granny Smith).
Suprême de Perdrix Rouge à la Crème de Marrons d'Ardèche,  Embeurrée de Chou Vert, Émincé de Truffes Fraîches de Vaucluse – Breast of red partridge served with a cream sauce made with the AOP chestnuts from the department of Ardèche in the region of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.  Accompanying the partridge is France’s beloved buttered green cabbage and thin slices of fresh Vaucluse truffles.  (The Vaucluse truffle is the same truffle as the Truffe de Périgord, the Périgord truffle, the black diamond, the most appreciated and expensive of France’s truffles.  The old province of Périgord truffle is mostly within the department of Dordogne and is famous for its Cuisine à la Périgourdine, walnuts and wines, not only its truffles.

Red-legged partridge with a pear and raisin chutney.
Also on some wine lists:

Œil de Perdrix The eye of the partridge, a rosé wine made from pinot noir grapes that was first named and produced in Switzerland. In France, there is a pink rosé Champagne called the Œil de Perdrix.

Œil de Perdrix Champagne label.
NV Veuve A. Devaux Rosé Œil de Perdrix,
Photograph courtesy of

Pomme De Terre Œil De Perdrix  The eye of the partridge potato; called the King Edward potato in the UK where it was developed. It became the UK’s most important potato in the early 1900’s and is still popular.

Two partridges are farmed in France with the red-legged partridge the most well-known, the second is the slightly smaller grey partridge.  The red-legged partridge’s natural habitat is France, Spain, and Portugal and it was transported as a game bird to the UK from France where it is also known as the French partridge. 

In France wild partridges are endangered but not because of hunting; rather because the very young birds eat small insects which have absorbed concentrated pesticides and that poisons them.  The adult birds pick up fallen seed from the ground, so they rarely eat the farmer’s crops and they do not live in forests, Despite France’s attempts to restrict the use of pesticides and the encouragement of the growth of organic farming pesticide use increase every year.

The grey partridge

Greek Mythology and the partridge.

An early example of fake news.

In Greek mythology, Perdrix (Partridge) was a brilliant inventor who studied under his uncle Daedalus himself a famous builder and inventor.  (While walking on the seashore, Perdrix picked up the spine of a fish (the bones), and that gave him the idea to take a piece of iron, cutting teeth into it and inventing the saw.  Perdrix also made the world’s first pair of compasses (dividers).  

The idea for a saw.
Tuna bones: Museum of Natural History, Berlin 2009
Photograph courtesy of Thomas Quine

Perdrix’s uncle Daedalus was jealous of his pupil’s success fearing it would take away from his own fame and in a jealous rage, he threw Perdrix off the top of the Acropolis in Athens.  Luckily, the goddess Athena saw it happening and changed Perdrix into a bird, a partridge, who was able to fly away from death.   Since then the perdrix (partridge) keeps away from cliffs and tall buildings.  A partridge may fly over a few low trees, but it will never sit in a tree, and it builds its nest on the ground.  (The partridge’s lifestyle casts doubt on the accuracy of the Christmas song about a partridge and a pear tree).  For his sin, Daedalus was banished to Crete, but that is another story.  

The Greek goddess Athena who saved Perdrix was the goddess of arts and skill as well as law and justice.

A replica of Phidias' statue of Athena that stood in the Parthenon,

(In Greek mythology Daedalus’s son was Icarus who flew to close to the sun.  The 2017 film titled Icarus that you can see on Netflix is about the Russian Olympic  drug scandal).

Partridges in the languages of France’s neighbors:
Perdrix Rouge -  The Red-legged Partridge
In the languages of France’s neighbors.

(Catalan -   perdiu roja[), (Dutch - rode patrijs), (German -  rothuhn), (Italian -  pernice rossa), (Spanish   - perdiz roja), (Latin - alectoris rufa),
Perdrix Grise - The Gray, or French Partridge
In the languages of France’s neighbors.

(Catalan - perdiu xerra), (Dutch - patrijs vogel), (German - rebhuhn), (Italian – starna), (Spanish - perdiz pardilla ), (Latin – pedrix pedrix ).

Connected Posts:




Searching for the meaning of words, names or phrases
French menus?

Just add the word, words, or phrase that you are searching for to the words "Behind the French Menu" and search with Google. Behind the French Menu’s links include hundreds of words, names, and phrases that are seen on French menus. There are over 400 articles that include over 3,000 French dishes with English translations and explanations.


Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010, 2018.

For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman

Saturday, October 13, 2018

Bœuf Fermier d’Aubrac, Label Rouge – The Red Label Beef from Aubrac in the Center of Southern France.

Behind the French Menu
Bryan G. Newman
Aubrac cow and calf.

When you want great beef, and Bœuf Fermier d’Aubrac is on the menu expect something special.  From farms over 800 m. (2600’) high, for five to six months a year the Aubrac cattle are free-range on the Aubrac Plateau where they graze on grass and wild herbs and flowers.  In the winter they are fed hay from the same grass and herbs that they eat in the summer; after two to three seasons on the plateau, their beef is flavored and well marbled.

The Aubrac Plateau is close to the center of southern France.
The plateau is to the South of the Massif Central where the departments of Lozère, Aveyron, and Cantal meet.
The Aubrac Beef’s Label Rouge

The Bœuf Fermier d’Aubrac must meet yearly standard checks, unlike many wines that bear famous labels but were last checked one hundred or more years ago.  For their Label Rouge IGP, (the UK PGI) the calves must be raised by their mothers until weaned and no antibiotics or growth hormones may be used.  Every year there are organoleptic tests where highly trained professional tasters use their very special noses and taste buds to ensure the quality never drops.

Statue to the Aubrac Bulls in Laguiole.
To meet the requirement for the Label Rouge cattle, there must be at least 10,000 sq. m. (2.50 acres) for each cow and calf.  This beef comes from small farms with the average herd less than 100 head including calves and bulls.  Many of the farms are also AB (Agriculture Biologique) certified organic farms.

Aubrac Plateau in winter,
Bœuf d’Aubrac on French Menus:

Côte de Bœuf d’Aubrac pour 2 (800 g), Frites Maison –  A  bone-in rib-eye steak from the Bœuf Fermier d’Aubrac for two,  with 800 grams (28 ounces) including the bone, served with the restaurant’s special French Fries.  The bone will take 50% of the weight served, and so each diner may expect 200 grams (7 ounces).  When a menu listing reads Frites Maison that indicates the restaurant has its own particular take on French fries. Ask.

Daube de Boeuf Aubrac Label RougeDaube is a famous beef stew that originated in Provence.  It is made with a red wine and tomato base; the vegetables and herbs depending on the time of year and the chef.  When good chefs begin with good beef, they make seriously good steaks.  However, with good ingredients, it is the rare gourmand who can tell one good steak from another.  That is not so true for stews where it takes more than a very high temperature and a little salt and pepper to cook.  A good stew takes hours of preparation at a low temperature, the herbs have to be just right, and when the meat used is not just good but seriously good then you will taste the difference. 

Preparing the Daube
Photograph courtesy of Timur Saglambilek

Faux-Filet de Bœuf d'Aubrac au Poivre Noir de Kâmpôt, Lit de Fèves - A UK sirloin steak, a US strip steak. (The UK and USA sirloin are not the same cuts).  This is a pepper steak made with the Kampot black pepper from Cambodia and served on a bed of fava beans, also called the Windsor or broad bean.  Poivre de Kâmpôt from Cambodia is real pepper, from peppercorns, not a chili pepper, and holds a European Union IGP.  Pepper enthusiasts claim its taste speaks to gourmands and of course the pepper’s origin makes the menu listing more interesting.
Pièce de Bœuf d’Aubrac Cuite au Barbecue, Panisses aux Herbes et Sauce Foyot – The butcher’s choice of unique rump steaks cooked on a barbeque and accompanied by  Panisses and served with Sauce Foyot. The cut called the Piece de Bœuf, or Piece Boucher indicates the butcher’s choice and that is the name given to a few uniquely tasty cuts from the rump with only enough steaks for six to eight servings from a whole steer.  A skilled French butcher knows the real value of these cuts that are overlooked and wasted outside of France,

The Panisses began as a street food in the City of Nice on the Cote d’Azur on the Mediterranean and have made it to the best restaurants.  They mostly look like wide oblong fries (chips) and are made with chickpea flour, and like the best fries (chips) are crispy on the outside and soft on the inside.  The shape of  Panisses differs from street vendor to chef as each has his or her favorite.  Traditionally they are offered with just a sprinkling of with salt, but now grated Parmesan or Gruyere cheese may be added.  The Sauce Foyot was created by adding to a Sauce Béarnaise the glazed cooking juices of roasted meats making it the perfect sauce for grilled meats.  (Sauce Foyot is also called Sauce Valois). 
Vegan Panisses

Tartare de Bœuf d'Aubrac (Cru ou Aller-retour), Frites Maison Steak Tartar cru, uncooked, or aller-retour, ever so lightly seared on both sides, accompanied by the restaurant’s particular take on French fries.  Steak Tatar is a steak in the manner of the Tartars, the frightening fighters, the hordes, who rode to war under the direction of Genghis Khan in the 13th century.  Twentieth-century folklore has the Tartar tribesmen riding to battle with raw meat under their horses' saddles.  As they rode they were said to cut off pieces of the raw meat with a knife, and eat as they rode; they only stopped riding to sleep.

Today’s Steak Tartar begins with hand-cut or ground steak.  The texture is very important, and with this dish, you can really taste the meat so you do need seriously good beef and Aubrac beef fits that requirement.  Despite the lack of a frying pan or grill, this may be one of the greatest steak dishes that you have ever tasted.  Steak Tartar is made with tender, flavorsome steak, onion, parsley, cornichons, capers, and Cognac with Tabasco or Worcester sauce adding spice.  In many recipes, a raw egg yolk will be mixed in just before serving.  For those who enjoy good restaurant theater, you may an enjoy a true professional mixing the ingredients in front of you; there is no cooking involved.  For the French, a Steak Tartare is a spicy dish, but for most of us, spicy French dishes are not really very spicy.

This menu listing offers a choice of the traditional uncooked (cru) Steak Tatar or  very very slightly seared on the top and bottom "aller-retour".  Aller-Retour means go and come back, and when I use to travel from Paris to Lyon by train to see customers, I would order a cheap day-return train ticket known as an “aller-retour” a same day return ticket.  But how did this name jump to Steak Tatar and other dishes very lightly seared on both sides?  A French friend explained that for a new dish a chef must choose a name and "aller-retour" caught on.  So a Steak Tatar with a go and return ticket indicates the beef pate is taken from its starting point on a plate for a very very short searing of the beef on one side and that is the “go- aller,”  then the pate is flipped to the other side for the  “return – retour."  This creates a Steak Tatar sandwich of different flavors and textures.

The cities of Paris and Lyon compete for the name of the center of all that is good in French Cuisine and “aller-retour” Paris-Lyon- Paris tickets are still on sale.  When you visit Paris consider a side trip to Lyon for lunch, a visit to one of its three major art museums, the Bartholdi Fountain, and and then back to Paris for dinner.  Travel time each way is a pleasant two to two and a half hours.  Whether you try a Steak Tatar “aller-retour” in Paris or Lyon is up to you.


Tartare de Bœuf Aller-retour,
The Aubrac cattle
The Aubrac cattle were, until the French revolution, bred by monks on the Aubrac Plateau.  There they were raised to pull plows and provide milk as well as meat.  The cows provided the milk for the fabulous Laguiole cheese though now other breeds have taken their place and tractors replaced the Aubrac cattle pulling plows.  Nevertheless, despite the changes, a few farmers still make cheese with Aubrac milk.
Aubrac beef farmers continue a tradition of “transhumance.” the seasonal movement from the winter farms and barns to the summer pastures.  Every year a few thousand visitors come to watch as the herds meet near the village of Aubrac on the 25th of May when the herds with the cows and their calves begin their trek to their summer pastures.  To learn more about this tradition see the website below.  The Google or Bing translate programs allows the French language website to be clearly understood in English.

The village of Aubrac where the transhumance begins is just 20 km (12 miles) from the small but famous town of Laguiole.

Laguiole is home to three famous products.
N.B. Forget about the spelling, Laguiole is pronounced lie-yole, the G is silent. 
Laguiole AOP cheese.

The excellent Laguiole AOP, 45% fat, cow’s milk cheese is aged from 4 to 24 months before sale and to reach its own post click here.

Laguiole Cheese.

Maison du Laguiole
Maison du Laguiole, the House of Laguiole.  The creator of the original Limonadier, the traditional French corkscrew, and the Laguiole knife along with some of France’s best cutlery.

Laguiole en Aubrac - Brown Horn

Restaurant Bras
Restaurant Bras, one of France’s most celebrated restaurants.  I do not usually name restaurants as chefs change fairly frequently and an up-to-date newspaper or magazine review is better than a post in a blog that can be around for a number of years.  However, the Bras restaurant under the imaginative command of Michel Bras and his son Sébastien has held three Michelin stars for fifty years.  That is just about long enough to tell me that they are doing something right and unlikely to change very soon.  Michel studied under the master chef Ferdinand Point who in the 1950's taught French chefs to throw out the heavy sauces and heating pans of Haute Cuisine.  Point’s students created today’s modern French cuisine then called Nouvelle Cuisine.  Those students are today, like Michel Bras, the grey-headed patriarchs of French cuisine.  The Bras restaurant and its associated hotel and restaurant have an English language website:

Traveling to Laguiole
If you are traveling to the Mediterranean and the town of Sete or Montpellier from Paris you will probably take the A71 and A75 highways.  The A75 passes close to the Aubrac Plateau and Laguiole.  The web page below shows Laguiole in the center and clicking on the letter “i “  will pop up websites of all the French Government Tourist Information Offices in the area. 

On the menu in the region as well as many restaurants around France will be Aligot, a wonderful dish of cheese and mashed potato and garlic that is important enough to have its own post.  There are purists who believe that the real aligot can only be made with a young Laguiole cheese, a local tome fraiche, or a young Cantal cheese.  However, I can attest to having enjoyed, outside the region, excellent aligots made with other cheeses.

The Laguiole French Government Tourist Information Office has an English language website:

Connected Posts:
Searching for the meaning of words, names or phrases
French menus?

Just add the word, words, or phrase that you are searching for to the words "Behind the French Menu" and search with Google. Behind the French Menu’s links include hundreds of words, names, and phrases that are seen on French menus. There are over 400 articles that include over 3,000 French dishes with English translations and explanations.

Bryan G Newman

Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010, 2018.

For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman