Saturday, July 19, 2014

The New French Wine Labels. What has changed in French wines? What is an AOP, an IGP and a Vin de France.

AOC has become AOP
                                 QVDS has disappeared.                                        
Vin de Pays has become IGP.
Vin de table has become Vin de France.
Wines bottled before 1912 may keep their old labels.

Nouveau Beaujolais 2013.
Photograph courtesy of totordenamur.
AOP  replaced AOC.

 AOP in French stands for Appellation d'Origine Protégée; for French wines this indicates specific grapes and wines made in distinct growing areas. These French wine growing areas are called appellations.
What does the AOP mean for the consumer?
All the wines that previously carried the AOC label were grandfathered in. For the consumer who bought  a specific AOC wine before and now buys the same wine with an AOP label he or she will find that nothing has changed.  The AOP labels, as the AOC label before, covers not only the grapes that may be used, it also covers the ways the grapes are grown, the way the wines are blended and their method as well place of production. All the old regulations remain.

Wine in carafe and glass.
Photograph courtesy of nyaa_birdies_perch.

A similar wine made in other wine growing areas that use the same grapes cannot bear the same name, and from my limited experience the two wines will have different tastes.  In the French world of food and wine grading, AOP is the big one; even for the locals an AOP is the most impressive of all the many grades printed on the labels of French foods and wines.

What can you tell from an AOC or AOP wine  label?

Many AOC and now AOP wines do not show the AOP label  on the bottle, but all AOP wines must show their Appellation.  Only AOP wines have wine growing areas called Appellations.

A  wine may have two or three labels. A wine’s vintage may be on a label on the bottle’s neck,  and lower down, maybe one or two more labels with the wine producer's name, its Appellation, the place where the wine was bottled, along with the alcohol content and the bottle's volume.

Where the wine was bottled will be shown on the labels.

Bottling within the winery where the wine is produced is considered a sign of quality. Not all small wineries can afford or produce enough wine to own their own bottling plant. The industry has a solution for that and in France I have seen mobile bottling plants brought into the winery's property. Over a period of one to two days that year's vintage is bottled and labelled. The label will read Mis en bouteille au Domaine or Chateau, etc. Bottled on the producer's land.

A mobile bottling plant that fits inside a 20' container.
It arrives on the back of a truck.
The plant is made by ContenO, a Belgium company.

Finally, usually at the end of the label, comes the name of the producer or wholesaler followed by an address.

There are over four-hundred and fifty different French wines entitled to an AOP label and probably close to 20,000 wineries.  With numbers like these how likely are you to know a particular wine, winery and if its vintage comes from a good year on a wine list? A small wine list in a good restaurant may offer 30 or even more different AOP wines; that restaurant has to choose its 30 wines from hundreds. Choosing a wine, even for the knowledgeable owner of French restaurant, is not easy.

Have the wines changed in the last 100 years?

Yes, wines change,  and for the wines that have improved in a good restaurant you do need a good sommelier. A sommelier is a professionally trained wine-waiter who apart from selling wine, tastes the wines, sees to their storage and careful aging, and then builds a wine list to cover a wide range of tastes and price-levels. A wine that was graded in 1935 or before will not be the same today, and the sommelier is expected to know how all the wines on his or her wine-list taste.

Since 1935 when the original AOC grades became law the way the soil is treated and the way the grapes are treated and the way the wines are aged has become a science.  For the consumer, those changes are not easy to understand.  A wine that received its AOC  rating in 1935 may then have been just good enough to pass.  The same wine from its 2005 vintage may now be superb; however, the consumer will not know that from the label. Equally a great wine in 1935 may today have trouble selling its production; however, its AOP rating will not be removed and the consumer will probably not know its reduced quality.   When you do go to France take an up to date book about French wine with you, an encyclopedia is not required!  At least try expensive wines in a wine bar before buying a bottle in a restaurant or a case in a wine shop.

What you need to know about AOP wines.

Champagne as an example.

There are some 100 Champagne houses.. A Champagne House is a wine producer who sells Champagne under its own name and may also grow some of the grapes; however, most Champagne Houses will be buying 80% or more of their grapes from independent growers.  There are also wholesalers, called négociant distributeurs, who buy and sell bottled Champagne wines and have them labeled and sold under their own names. Knowing a little about these  wines can make for a better choice.

Champagne bottle and flute.
Photograph courtesy  of Bergius.

The grapes used in Champagne are divided into two crus, levels of excellence, and there are also grades named after the vineyards around certain villages. These grades are in  additions to the AOP grade. The ratings from Champagne  grapes were laid down 60 plus years ago and remain unchanged. Most Champagnes are blends of different grapes and most are cuvees, that is wine from different years that are  blended to achieve a taste that will not vary from year to year. If you find a cuvee that you enjoy then you can order it again and again, the taste will always be the same. The nose and taste buds of the blenders in the great Champagne houses are the equal of those in the great Cognac houses.

The grapes used to make Champagne:

The five grapes permitted for Champagnes are Arbane, Chardonnay, Petit Meslier, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris.  Most Champagnes are made from three of these five grapes some use four and only one Champagne uses a single grape. The labels carry the information.

Blanc de Blancs: Champagnes made using only the white Chardonnay grape. White wines from white grapes.

Blanc de Noirs: Champagnes made from Pinot Gris and Pinot Blanc grapes. A white wine made from black grapes.

Rosé  Champagne: Champagne made into a rosé Champagne Rosé with a red wine added to the Champagne to create the rosé. The area of Champagne also grows still wines called the Coteaux Champenois AOP and these still wines include white, rosé and red wines.N.B.  In other AOP areas of France if you mixed white and red wines to make a rosé wine you would get you kicked out of the wine industry. However, these are Champagne rules so do not argue!

Cuvees or Vintage Champagnes:

Some Champagnes are vintages; these are wines made with grapes from a single year and true champagne oenophiles  know and remember  the taste of the vintages they prefer.  In my favorite foody movie, Babet’s Feast, the army officer at the feast identifies the champagne by name and vintage when he tastes a Champagne that he had last  tasted over ten years before.

During the blending of champagne a small and limited mixture of white wine, brandy, and sugar may be added to adjust the sweetness level of the wine and to top up the bottle. This is another secret revealed, but this has been part of the recipe for hundreds of years.

Champagne Sweetness.
The consumer must also consider the  sweetness of the Champagne. Champagnes  come with five different degrees of sweetness from very, very dry to impossibly sweet.

The English language web site for all Champagne wines is:
Bordeaux wines as an example:

Bordeaux wines also require as great deal of knowledge as there are so many. Bordeaux produces 57 different AOP appellations. Producing wines from these 57 different wines are over 9,000 wineries!   Then to confuse us more among these wines are 5 crus, grades for the older red wines that were allocated in 1855, and three crus for other reds; there are also three crus for Bordeaux white wines.  I admit that I have never sat down and tasted Bordeaux wines cru by cru and appellation by appellation. I could not afford that or even consume that much. I may have made some mistakes in allocating the Bordeaux crus and I apologize.

Thankfully, restaurant wine-lists of Bordeaux wines are not divided into 57 different sections, most restaurant who offer many Bordeaux wines divide Bordeaux into just seven groups. In any case I have not heard of any restaurant that tries to offers every good Bordeaux wine, that would cost millions.  French restaurants offer Bordeaux wines; however, France has nearly 400 other  AOP wines competing for space on that wine list. None of this makes the Bordeaux wineries happy;  the 9,000 plus wineries  will all be fighting to get their name on a wine-list when there may only be  space for 10 Bordeaux wines. For more about the cuisine and wines of Bordeaux see the post: Bordeaux and Bordelaise on the Menu, and Bordeaux AOP Wines on the Wine-List.
From the examples of Champagne and Bordeaux above, you will quickly learn, as I have done that choosing a wine, despite the new AOP label, is not easy and for the true connoisseur requires a lifetime of learning and deep pockets. Use your book on French wines when considering a Bordeaux.

A 1964 Bordeaux wine label.
Photograph courtesy of roger4336.

The English website for all Bordeaux wines is:

French wines include the greatest wines in the world. However, the change from AOC to AOP has not made the life of the consumer of French wines easier.  That being said now all the wines of Europe, including those from Spain and Italy, have one set of labels, and one set of standards. However, the taste test is up to the consumer.  In a restaurant a well-educated sommelier who knows the diner’s budget can make all the difference. The sommelier can guide the diner away from a famous and expensive wine that comes from a bad year and offer a good wine  from a good year from a lesser known producer.

When French wines changed labels to meet  the new European AOP standards, the wine in the bottles did not change. For more about AOP and its use in French foods, wines and more see the post: AOC and AOP on France's Foods and Wine labels?

VQDS. This label is no longer used.
VQDS.  These wines whose logo meant Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure were originally wines that were considered candidates for upgrading to an AOC.  The wines that carried that VDQS label have now either been upgraded to the full AOP status or given the lower IGP status.

IGP  has replaced, ot at least added to the previous Vin de Pays

IGP means Indication Géographique Protégée. The equivalent English language label reads PDO and means Protected Designation of Origin. This label gives the consumer assurance that the wine was made in a particular part of France. 
The Vins de Pays label that preceded the new IGP was for fifty years a grade that offered wines from a particular region and the IGP continues that tradition. Like the AOC wine, all the Vin de Pays were grandfathered into the new IGP label. Whatever you enjoyed and relished as a Vin de Pays may continue to be enjoyed and valued as an IGP.

IGP wines may show the grapes used and always show the area of France where the wine was made.

When a visitor to France sees an IGP wine made  with one of the popular grapes often seen on the bottles of New World wines such as  Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot or Chardonnay, etc. that visitor has a good idea of the taste.  When in France compare a local IGP wine made with a grape that you know from home, the taste may be different and often better. As an example, when you buy a Chardonnay IGP Pays d'Oc you will know the name of the producer, the place where the grapes were grown and the wine produced, and the year the grapes were picked. You can order that Chardonnay wine again and again. Pay’s d’Oc wines are from France’s southern Languedoc-Roussillon region.

Label of Chardonnay Vin de Pays d'Oc.
Photograph courtesy of Fenners 1984.
IGP wines are also allowed to add a subtle amount of pure water made with boiled oak chips to aging wines; that provides more of that natural oak taste!  Do not be surprised about the use of oak chips, those were always part of the wines make-up. Knowing how the wines are made does not change their taste. Cognac also permits the use of oak chips just as Champagne and other wines have their permitted additions. 

Overproduction in an IGP vineyard

If an IGP producer’s vineyard produces too many grapes per vine that will lower the quality of the  wine. Then the powers that check the IGP wines will push  that wine into the Vin de France category (formerly Vin de Table). IGP regulations also have taste tests, but I know little about this and I have never seen the results of a taste test, nor heard anything about the people who do the tasting.

IGP wines on top restaurant wine-lists. 
Over the last years some excellent  IGP wines are being added to the wine-lists of a few of France’s top restaurants, including those with Michelin stars. The sommeliers, the trained wine-waiters, along with the chef will have tasted IGP wines that are offered. Then a few of the best IGP wines will make it  to the restaurant’s wine list, and replace less well considered  AOP wines.  There are now more than more than 150 IGP  Vin de Pays wines in reds, whites and rosesm and knowing which one  is best in a particular year requires a degree of knowledge far above mine; you need that wine book.

Vins de France

Vins de France replace the Vins  de Table (table wines) and they are the considered France’s lowest ranking  the wines, though they are often  far from being bad wines.

Vin de France are  sold without their area of origin on the label.  The regulations that previously applied to Vins de Table remain, more or less, the same. Vins de France are typically sold under the producer's name or use a  brand name that will make it easier for the consumer to recognize.  For a single grape wine,  the name of the grape used is permitted and other wines are blends,  Most Vins de France are relatively young wines that are meant to be drunk with little aging.

On the table in the home of French consumer over 75% if the wines are IGP or Vin de France. For drinking wine at home the French consumer tests a bottle and then buys a case; French consumers know their wines. While French consumption of wine has dropped steadily over the last 30 years; however, the French still hold the title for the highest per capita consumption of wine.  According to figures from  the BBC in  2011 the average Frenchman or woman drinks just over one bottle a week.

I noted above that Vins de France wine are often far from being bad wines.  If a vineyard is outside the areas of the AOP or IGP wines, the producer will have no choice but  to be graded as a Vin de France. The wine produced may be a good wine, but the vineyard is outside the specifically  graded wine growing areas. 

There are also cases where an AOP vineyard used plastic sheeting to prevent too much water reaching the grapes during a period of heavy rain and for that the wine was downgraded to a Vin de France, the producer broke the rules.  Adding a different grape to a blend will also lose the producer the right to hold the higher grade. With these otherwise fine wines not meeting the legal format of VOP or even IGP, some producers have begun selling their wines with brands which the consumers will remember. Small restaurants and bistro owners taste these wines and when the find good quality Vins de France they become their house wines. Their low prices and good quality will bring the local diners coming back again and again.  Other producers of Vins de France have chosen the path of low-priced marketing with boxed wines and/or adding fruit flavors that attract the younger crowd.

A very short history of the grading of French wines.

Many French wines have been graded under one system or another for some 500 years. These grades are known to oenophiles, wine connoisseurs but that information has little value for most of us. Today;s grading began in 1885  when the wine merchants demanded a  way to grade Bordeaux wines. Crus, grades, were allocated to wines by using the accepted public thinking along with the then current selling price. In the 150 years since then, less than three wines have changed their ratings despite the changes in growing grapes and making wines. Starting in the early 1900’s France’s official grading’s began, and in 1935, the government created the Institut National des Appellations d'Origine (INAO). The Institute of INAO now oversees labels used for all of France’s foods and wines including the  Label Rouge and the AB label for organic produce and wines. The AOP wine growing areas  are divided into over 300 appellations, the wine growing areas; of those 54 appellations  are in Bordeaux. An appellation legalizes and limits the wines that may be grown in a specific area. The regulations have changed a little over the years. Included in the regulations are the crus  and the names of the chateaus, villages and other forms of grading within the approved grade of  AOP, IGP or Vins de France. The untrained visitor to France needs that book on French wines today.

Since 1935, the way the soil is treated, the way the wines are aged has become a science. For the consumer the changes that have occurred are not easy to evaluate as the advertising promotes the labels, the region, and age of the vintage.  The taste requires knowledge.

Are you are considering buying an old wine at a  bargain price?

If you see a famous or impressively named French AOC wine five  or ten years old, or even older at an enticing low price, do not buy it!  If the wine was good the French wine mavens would have been there long before you. Just as there is no free lunch, there are no famous old French wines at bargain prices.


Historically the different grapes were nearly always blended to produce the best tastes. The buyers, who mostly came from England, were those who drove the vintners to produce better wines. France’s most important wine market was the Port de Bercy, a tax free village on the Seine River  just outside Paris’s original walls. In the 1820’s Bercy was the largest wine market in the world. Bercy wine wholesalers produced in their cellars the first blends of quite a number of  wines and sent their recipes  back to their growers. Some of these blends remain today and many other wines are versions of blends that began in Bercy.
For more about Bercy see the post: Sauce Bercy, the Classic Sauce for Fish;
Despite all the science behind the modern wine industry, the wine experts will tell you and show you that the grapes grown on different soils do produce wines that taste differently.  To that, add the weather in a particular year and that unique French expression terroir. Terroir, in wine, is the unique difference in taste that comes again and again from a specific part odf a vineyard. A vineyard in the same appellation, but 100 yards away, may not have that unique difference in taste. Year by year a part of a one-acre vineyard may produce a markedly better wine than the neighboring vines and that is its terroir. That terroir comes from the soil, the slope on a hill, the shade, or lack of it and so far no algorithm has solved the unexplainable difference.

Wine is the perfect accompaniment for most French cuisine and French diners know very well that a good wine can add to their enjoyment of their meal. The French diner also knows what damage an expensive wine can do to his or her pocketbook or wallet!  Even as I love wines I will not pay more for a wine than I pay for a meal.  When someone else is paying I may enjoy a wine that I usually would not consider.
Organic wines

To all of the three-wine grades noted above, you may see additional labels indicating wines produced from organically grown grapes.  The French government AB label, which is the most trusted of all organic labels, will be seen on wines of all three grades.
AB Label.

Agriculture Biologique, Organic Agriculture

The AOC label in English, Italian and German

The English label reads:
Protected designation of origin PDO.

The Italian language label reads:  
Denominazione di Origine Protetta.
The German language label reads:  
Geschützte Ursprungsbezeichnung

The IGP labels in English,  Italian and German,

       English                                                        French


         German                                                               Italian
 Connected posts:



Bryan G, Newman

Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010,2014

For information on the unpublished book behind this blog contact Bryan Newman

Friday, July 11, 2014

Cresson, Cresson de Fontaine - Watercress on the French Menu.

Cresson de Fontaine or Cresson – Watercress.
For the French cress is almost always cresson de fontaine, watercress.  When, on a French menus the diner sees cresson he or she expects watercress and other cress.

Watercress on sale in a French market
Photograph courtesy of MillNe T.
The watercress on your menu will have been farmed and so it will not be as sharp as  wild watercress.  As a child my brother and I collected wild watercress in the slow running corners of streams in the English Lake District, and that watercress was spicy.  When dining in the France’s countryside the local mushroom and herb gatherers, the ramasseurs de champignons et herbes, may be supplying the restaurant with wild watercress; then you are in for a treat.  
On your menu you may be offered:
 Les Langoustines Côtières au Vert de Cresson, Céleri et Radis - Dublin Bay prawns, scampi, caught in coastal waters, prepared with a sauce made from the juice of watercress, and served with celery and radishes.

Noix de Saint Jacques Grillées, Blancs de Poireaux à la Crème, Coulis de cresson. Scallop meat, without the shell, grilled and served with creamed leeks and pureed watercress.

Salade de Cresson et Raviole de Chèvre Frais – A watercress salad served with ravioli made with fresh goat’s cheese.

Salade de pommes de terre au haddock et cresson – A potato salad served with cold smoked haddock and watercress. (X)

Watercress flowers.
Photograph courtesy of John Tann
Velouté de Cresson de Méréville- A velvety watercress soup, made with the watercress grown in de Méréville.

Cream of watercress soup.
Photograph courtesy of French Tart

A French chef told me and I have checked, watercress is also good for you. It has plenty of Vitamin A and C and no Sodium; watercress even has a little calcium.

Garden cress is the most popular cress in Britain and called cressonnette or alénois cressonnette in France. Garden cress is appreciated in France, but not enough to be  on many menus.

Garden cress.
Photograph courtesy of Mycatkins.
The famed watercress of Méréville 

Cresson de Méréville  is the most highly rated cultivated watercress and it is grown around the town of Méréville in the department of Essonne in the region of Ile-de-France.  By car Méréville is an hour and a quarter from Paris 74 km (45 miles)  They have been cultivating watercress here for over one-hundred years.

Visit a French watercress fair.

If you are really into watercress then visit the Foire Annuelle au Cresson de Méréville , the fair of watercress in Méréville. The fair is is held from Saturday through Monday on the Easter weekend;  Easter is a national, and not a religious holiday in France though some 10% of the population may go to church. .At the watercress fair some sixty exhibitors will be outside city hall and selling everything from wine,cheeses, herbs, lessons in cooking with cress and, of course, watercress .  However, always check the dates a few months in advance as occasionally fairs do change dates,

Cultivating watercress in Méréville.
Photograph courtesy of David_Reverchon.

The famous, but dilapidated Jardin de Méréville, the garden of Méréville, was a splendid and unique Anglo-Chinese garden when it was built in 1787; it was designed by the architect Bellanger and the painter Hubert Robert. Now it is being restored to its former glory and group tours are being held even before the full restoration is complete and tickets may be reserved before arrival.  If the garden is closed on the day, you intend to be in the area, worry not; travel in any direction from Méréville and you will find chateaux, castles and gardens by the score.  The town of Méréville, if you also remember, plays an important part in Les Misérables.

The Garden of Mereville.
Photograph courtesy of David- Méréville Reverchon.

Travelling to Méréville

The tourist information their website is in French only; however with Google translate or Bing Translator you will have most of the information you need. 
Office de Tourisme de la région Beauce-Méréville.
To arrange for a visit to the gardens and other places in the area send an email to: If you have a French speaker around you may call the office at +33-1-64 95- 18 00

Watercress in the languages of Frances neighbours:

(German – brunnenkresse), (Italian – crescione),(Spanish - berro),

Watercress in other languages:
 (Arabic - نبات البقلة)–  (Chinese -豆瓣, Dòubàn), (Danish – brøndkarse) (Dutch-  waterkers),  (Filipino -  kangkong) , (Greek – κάρδαμο, kárdamo), , (Korean –물냉이, mulnaeng-i), (Hebrew – rashad, ראשד, רשד),(Indonesian - seladri air),(Japanese -クレソン, Kureson), (Malay - selada air),(Russian-  кресс водяной, kress vodyanoy),(Serbian – поточарка, potočarka), (Swedish – vattenkrasse), Turkish - su teresi),  (Ukrainian - крес водяний, kres vodyanyy). (Latin -  Nasturtium officinale). Thanks to Google Translate for most of these translations.

Connected posts:


Bryan G. Newman
Behind the French Menu
Copyright 2010, 2014.

For more information on the unpublished book behind  this blog contact Bryan Newman

Angelica Designs. Buy Now